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In atomic physicsHund's rules refers to a set of rules that Article source physicist Friedrich Hund formulated aroundwhich are used to determine Hund Würmer Person term symbol that visit web page to the ground state of a Hund Würmer Person electron atom.

The first rule is especially important in chemistry, where it is often referred to simply as Hund's Rule. The three rules are: These rules specify in a simple way how usual energy interactions dictate the ground state Hund Würmer Person. The rules assume that the repulsion between the outer electrons is much greater than the spin—orbit interaction, which is in turn stronger than any other remaining interactions.

This is referred to as the LS coupling regime. Full shells and subshells do not Hund Würmer Person to the quantum numbers for total  Sthe total spin angular momentum and for  Lthe total orbital angular momentum. It can be shown that for full orbitals Hund Würmer Person suborbitals both the residual electrostatic term repulsion between electrons and the spin—orbit interaction can only shift all the energy levels together.

Hund Würmer Person when determining the ordering of energy levels in general only just click for source outer valence electrons must be considered. Due to the Pauli exclusion principletwo electrons cannot share the same set of quantum numbers Hund Würmer Person the same system; therefore, there is Hund Würmer Person for Hund Würmer Person two electrons in Hund Würmer Person spatial orbital.

Hund's first rule states that the lowest energy atomic state is the one that maximizes the total spin quantum number for the electrons in the open subshell. The orbitals of the subshell are each occupied singly with electrons of parallel spin before double occupation occurs. This is occasionally called the "bus seat rule" since it is analogous to the behaviour of bus passengers Hund Würmer Person tend to occupy all double seats singly before double occupation occurs.

Two different physical explanations have been given [4] for the increased stability of high multiplicity states. In the early days of quantum mechanicsit click the following article proposed that electrons in different orbitals are further apart, so that Hund Würmer Person repulsion energy is reduced.

However, accurate quantum-mechanical calculations starting in the s have shown that the reason is that the article source in singly occupied orbitals are less see more screened or shielded from the nucleus, so that such orbitals contract and electron—nucleus attraction energy becomes greater in magnitude Hund Würmer Person decreases algebraically.

As an example, consider the ground state of silicon. The electronic configuration of Si is 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 2 see spectroscopic notation. We need to consider only the outer 3p die Wurmeier zu töten  electrons, for which it can be shown see term symbols that the possible terms allowed by the Pauli exclusion principle are 1 D  , 3 P  , and 1 S. This rule deals with reducing the repulsion between electrons.

It can be understood from the classical picture that if all electrons just click for source orbiting in the same direction higher orbital angular momentum they meet less often than if some of them orbit in opposite directions.

In the latter case the repulsive force increases, which separates electrons. This adds potential energy to Hund Würmer Person, so their energy level is higher. For silicon there is only one triplet state, so the second rule is not required.

In this case the open shell is 3d 2 and the allowed terms include three singlets 1 S, 1 D, and 1 G and two triplets 3 P and 3 F.

Here the symbols S, P, D, F, and G indicate that the total orbital angular momentum quantum number has values 0, 1, 2, 3 and Hund Würmer Person, respectively, analogous to the nomenclature for naming atomic orbitals. This rule considers the energy shifts due to spin—orbit coupling. Hund's rules work best for the determination of the ground state of an atom or molecule. They are also fairly reliable with occasional failures for the determination of the lowest state of a given excited electronic configuration.

Thus, in the helium atom, Hund Würmer Person first rule correctly predicts that the 1s2s triplet state 3 S pro Würmer Kind Jahr einem in lower than the Hund Würmer Person singlet 1 S.

Similarly for organic molecules, Hund Würmer Person same rule predicts that the first triplet state denoted by T 1 in photochemistry is lower than the first excited singlet state S 1which is generally correct. However Hund's rules should Hund Würmer Person be used to order states other than the lowest for a given configuration.

In reality, however, 1 D lies below 1 G. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from List of Hund's rules. Not to be confused with Hund's cases. Hund's rule of maximum multiplicity. Retrieved from " https: Atomic physics Quantum chemistry Spectroscopy Rules. Views Read Edit View history. This page was Hund Würmer Person edited on 28 Marchat By Hund Würmer Person this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

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In atomic physics, Hund's rules refers to a set of rules that German physicist Friedrich Hund formulated around , which are used to determine the term symbol that corresponds to the ground state of a multi-electron atom.
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